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Cider with Rosie Cinderella the Cat City for Conquest [Ville Conquise] City of Industry City of Joy The Film That Changed Hollywood Cloak and Dagger [Cape et Poignard] Closer to the Moon Clouds Of Sils Maria Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs 2 Codebreaker [Britains Greatest Codebreaker] Cold Comes the Night Cold Comfort Farm Cold in July Cold War [Hon Zin] Cold Water [L'eau froide] Come And Find Me Company Of Heroes Conan The Barbarian Confessions of A Window Cleaner City of Demons Cradle Will Rock Crawl or Die Crazy Kind Of Love Crazy Rich Asians Crociati The crusaders Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon: Sword of Destiny Cry Danger [L'implacable Ennemie] Crying out love in the center of the world Cult of Chucky Curse Of The Hidden Vault Curse of the Pink Panther Curse Of The Yellow Snake Daddy's Home 2 Dallas Buyers Club Danny and the Human Zoo Dark Crimes [True Crimes] Das Gasthaus an der Themse Daughter of Dracula [La fille de Dracula] For the Love of the Game The Last Five Years Life on the Road Dawn of the Planet of the Apes Day the World Ended Days and Nights Days of Heaven [Les Moissons du Ciel] Days of Thunder [Jours de Tonnerre] Dawn of the Justice League Dead Again in Tombstone Dead Poets Society Dead Snow 2 Dear Dictator Coup d'Etat Death Mills Billy Wilder Death on the Nile Deliver us From Evil Live At The Time Demons of the Mind Den of Thieves Desperately Seeking Susan Despicable Me 2 Despicable Me 3 Despite the Falling Snow Destination Gobi [Gobi Outpost] Devil in the Dark Diana - In Her Own Words Dirty Rotten Scoundrels Rivierans Guldgossar Ditch Day Massacre Django, Prepare a Coffin [Preparati la bara] Do Not Disturb Do Not Resist Do you trust this computer?
Doc Holliday's Revenge Doc Martin and the Legend of the Cloutie Doctor Who and the Curse of Fatal Death Dog Eat Dog Dogtown and Z-Boys True Story of D-day Spies Double Lover L'amant double Dragon Nest - Warriors' Dawn The Sorcerers Curse Battle for the Heartfire Dragons - Dawn of the Dragon Racers Drop Zone [Zone Critique] Duck Duck Goose Dying of the Light Off The Hook Earth To Echo Echoes of War Edge of Seventeen Edge of Tomorrow El club de los incomprendidos The Mysfits Club Elvis and Nixon Embrace Of The Vampire Empire of the Sun [L'Empire du Soleil] Enchanted Kingdom 3D Enemy at the Gates [Stalingrad] [L'ennemi aux Portes] Enemy of the Reich: The Noor Inayat Khan Story Enter the Dangerous Mind Er Ist Wieder Da Escobar Paradise Lost Vegan on His Way to the Complain Store Every Home Should Have One Every Secret Thing Every Thing Will Be Fine Everybody Wants Some Everything Beautiful Is Far Away Gods and Kings Eye in the Sky Eyeball [Gatti rossi in un labirinto di vetro] Fack ju Goethe 2 Fahrenheit 0.
Fantastic Beasts And J. Rowling's Wizarding World Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them Far and Away [Horizons Lointains] Inside Eden's Gate Far from the Madding Crowd Fasandraeberne The Absent One Father of the Year Fathers and Daughters Field of Lost Shoes Fifty Shades Darker Fifty Shades Freed Fifty Shades of Black Fifty Shades of Grey Fight to the Finish Fighting the System Film Stars Don't Die in Liverpool First Blood [Rambo] First Girl I Loved First Light [Spitfire] Flashdance [Le Feu de la Danse] The Quest for Immortality Flightplan [Plan de Vol] Florence Foster Jenkins Flowers in the Attic Flowers in the Attic: Petals on the Wind For a Few Dollars More For the Boys [The Guys] For the Love of Spock For Those in Peril Force 10 from Navarone Force of Evil [L'Enfer de la Corruption] Force Of Execution Forced to Fight Fort Apache, the Bronx [Le Policeman] Forty Guns [Quarante Tueurs] Frank and Lola Free State of Jones Friday the 13th Frozen In Love Fugitive at 17 Full of Grace Fuocoammare Fire At Sea Into the Wild Green Yonder The Rise Of Cobra Gagarin First In Space Murder In D Minor Picture a Murder The Mask Murder The Pandora's Box Murders Garden of Evil [Le Jardin du Diable] Gardener of Eden Trying to be Special The Last Druid George Carlin - Complaints and Grievances George Michael - Live in London Geronimo An American Legend Get a Job Get A Job Get Carter [La Loi du Milieu] Get On Up The Go Doc Project Ghost in the Shell Girl Vs Monsters Glengarry Glen Ross [Glengarry] Glorious 39  God's Not Dead A Light in Darkness God's Own Country Gods of Egypt Going By The Book Going In Style Good Morning Vietnam Good Will Hunting Gourmet Detective TV Movie Grandpa's Great Escape Gray Lady Down [Sauvez le Neptune] Green Lantern Extended Cut Groupies Don't Stay For Breakfast Guardians of the Galaxy Guardians of the Galaxy Vol 2 Guardians of the Galaxy: Guilty by Suspicion Halo - The Fall of Reach Hamlet TV film Hands of Stone Handsome - A Netflix Mystery Movie Hanover Street [Guerre et Passion] Happy Death Day Happy-Go-Lucky [Be Happy] Hard to be a god Harrison's Flowers [Les fleurs d'Harrison] Harry Potter and The Chamber of Secrets Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Harry Potter and The Goblet of Fire Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone A History of Magic The Making of Diagon Alley He Got Game He Never Died He's Out There Head in the Clouds Hearts Beat Loud Heaven is For Real Allison [Dieu Seul le Sait] Hector and the Search for Happiness Hell or High Water Hell's Angels [Les Anges de l'Enfer] Hello, My Name Is Doris Here Comes the Devil Hide and Seek Amorous High Crimes [Crimes et Pouvoir] Highlander II - The Quickening Hit 'n Strum Hold the Dark Holy Flying Circus Holy Ghost People Holy Rollers [Jewish Connection] Home for Christmas Day Home from the Hill The Counter-Terror Dilemma Honig im Kopf The duchess and the devil The Duchess and The Devil The Even Chance The examination for lieutenant The frogs and the lobsters Horrible Bosses 2 Hostage [Otage de la Peur] Hot Tub Time Machine 2 Hotel Transylvania 2 House of D House of Games [Engrenages] House of Versace Lifetime How I Live Now How It Ends How Murray Saved Christmas How the West Was Won How To Be a Latin Lover How to be single How to Build a Better Boy How To Build A Human How to Plan an Orgy in a Small Town How to Talk to Girls at Parties How to Train Your Dragon 2 Where Monsters Dwell Hunt for the Wilderpeople A Monster Boy I Am a Hero I Am Ali I Am Bolt I Am Not a Serial Killer I Am Soldier I Am Wrath I am Wrath I capture the castle I Confess [La Loi du Silence] I Declare War I Feel Pretty I Kill Giants I Saw the Light I Spit On Your Grave 3 I, Daniel Blake I'm Brent Morin Ice Age Collision Course If I Stay If There Be Thornes If There's a Hell Below The Wolf Brigade Imagine - John Lennon 75th Birthday Concert In a Valley of Violence In a World In Bruges [Bons Baisers de Bruges] In name only In the Blood In the Cloud In the Heart of the Sea In Your Eyes Incident in a ghostland Inferno [La Piste Fatale] Dioxin no Natsu The Last Key Into the Forest Into The Storm Into the Woods Into The Woods Intruders Shut In Iqbal, a Tale of a Fearless Child Irma la Douce Iron Man and Captain America: Is Amanda Knox Guilty?
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Monica Z Waltz for Monica Monster Family Happy Family Monster High - Freaky Fusion It was estimated that for the period to household consumption grew at an average annual rate of 2.
In , Greece's labor force was estimated at 4. Unemployment was estimated at Altogether, there were over 4, trade unions. Unions were organized on a territorial rather than a plant basis: On a nationwide scale, union members of the same trade or profession form a federation; the General Confederation of Greek Workers GSEE is the central core of the private sector union movement.
Government plays an important role in labor-management relations. Collective bargaining and the right to strike are protected by law, although workers must give notice of an intent to strike 4 days for public utilities, 24 hours in the private sector.
Because of a history of compulsory arbitration as a means to resolve labor disputes, unions successfully lobbied for new legislation, passed in , which restricted the use of compulsory arbitration in favor of mediation procedures.
As of , the maximum legal workweek is 40 hours in the private sector and This amount provided a decent standard of living for a family.
Annual vacations of up to a month with pay are provided by law. In general, employment of children under the age of 15 in the industrial sector was prohibited.
The minimum age for children employed in cinemas, theaters and family businesses was Industrial health and safety standards are set by law and regularly enforced.
Agriculture in Greece suffers not only from natural limitations, such as poor soils and droughts, but also from soil erosion, lack of fertilizers, and insufficient capital investment.
The total farm labor force in was , full-time and nearly 1. In recent decades, Greek agriculture has been characterized by an increasing diversification of fruit crops for export.
Agricultural production of principal crops in was estimated as follows in thousands of tons: Progress has been made toward modernization in machinery and cultivation techniques.
Agricultural products, including processed foods, beverages, and tobacco, make up one-third of total exports. To expand agricultural production and encourage farm prosperity, the government exempts agricultural income from most taxes, extends liberal farm credits, and subsidizes agriculture.
It also operates a service by which individual growers or cooperatives may hire heavy farm equipment at low prices, encourages the development of industries that use farm products, provides educational programs, and has sought to halt the trend toward ever-smaller farm holdings.
There were , tractors, 5, harvester-threshers, and 13, milking machines in use in In there were 9,, sheep, 5,, goats, 1,, hogs, , head of cattle, 68, donkeys, 29, horses, 28, mules, and 28,, chickens.
Although production of milk, meat, and cheese has risen greatly since the end of World War II — 45 , Greece still must import substantial quantities of evaporated and condensed milk, cheese, cattle, sheep, hides, and meat.
Estimated meat production in included , tons of poultry, , tons of pork, , tons of mutton and goat meat, and 75, tons of beef and veal.
Livestock products in included in thousands of tons cow's milk, ; sheep milk, ; goat milk, ; cheese, ; eggs, ; honey, 15; and butter, 4. Recent modernization in machinery has especially helped poultry and hog operations.
The fishing industry has expanded and been modernized in recent years. In , the Greek fishing fleet consisted of 19, vessels with 97, GRT, and there were 33, people employed in small scale fisheries.
The total fish catch was , tons in Sponge fishing, formerly an important undertaking in the Dodecanese and other regions, decreased in volume from Much of the forest area was destroyed during the s, but the government's reforestation program planted more than million trees during the s and s.
Pine, fir, and oak are the most common trees, and resin and turpentine are the principal products. In , 1,, cu m 59,, cu ft of roundwood were harvested, including 1.
Sawn wood production in totaled , cu m 6,, cu ft , and wood-based panels, , cu m Production of timber is insufficient to meet the domestic demand, and many forestry products are imported.
The minerals industry, consisting of the mining, industrial minerals, and metal processing sectors, was a small but important part of the national economy.
Greece, the only Balkan country in the European Union EU , was the union's largest producer of bauxite, magnesium, nickel, and perlite, and was second to the United States in bentonite production from Milos Island.
Greek marble, produced in all parts of the country, continued to play a leading role in the international dimension stone market because of its versatility and many colors ash, black, brown, green, pink, red, and multicolored.
With the exception of bauxite, Greece's mines operated far below their productive capacity. A relatively small industrial base, lack of adequate investment, and distance from EU markets, have restricted the export potential of the country.
The emerging Balkan markets could offer opportunities for growth. Northern Greece was thought to contain a significant amount of exploitable mineral resources, and most new activities were directed toward gold.
Production in of bauxite was 2. Nickel content of ferronickel output in was estimated at 18, metric tons, while crude perlite production in that year was estimated at , metric tons, up from , metric tons in Also produced in were alumina, lead, manganese, silver, barite, cement, kaolin, feldspar, gypsum from Crete , anhydrite, nitrogen, pozzolan Santorin earth, from Milos , pumice from Yali , salt, silica, sodium compounds, dolomite, marble, flysch, quartz, sulfur, zeolite, and crude construction materials.
No asbestos was produced in Other mineral deposits of commercial importance were antimony, gold placer dredger , asbestos, emery, ceramic clay, talc, and limestone.
Industrial processing of mineral ores was very limited until the s and s, when facilities for refining nickeliferous iron ore and bauxite were developed.
Coal and oil are imported to supply power for the many small generating plants spread over the country. In , the government-organized Public Power Corp.
In , the first two units of the Kremasta hydroelectric station were opened; by , installed capacity totaled Production of electricity increased from 8, million kWh in to 50, million kWh in , of which Greece has actively explored offshore oil resources.
Total production, however, fell from 25, to 6, barrels per day between and In , oil production totaled an estimated 6, barrels per day, of which crude oil accounted for 2, barrels per day, from reserves estimated at 7 million barrels, as of 1 January Natural gas production in totaled an estimated 1.
Two-thirds of Greece's imports of natural gas come from Russia, with the remainder from Algeria. Greece's only substantial fossil fuel resource is brown coal , or lignite.
Its lignite reserves totaled an estimated 4, million short tons in , with production and consumption estimated at Manufacturing, which now ranks ahead of agriculture as an income earner, has increased rapidly owing to a vigorous policy of industrialization.
However, Greek industry must rely on imports for its raw materials, machinery, parts, and fuel. Greece has only a rudimentary iron and steel industry and does not manufacture basic transport equipment, such as cars and trucks.
Industry is concentrated in the Athens area. Chief industries in were food, beverages and tobacco; metals and metals manufactures; machinery and electrical goods; chemicals; textiles; and nonmetallic minerals.
Although the government controls certain basic industries, such as electric power and petroleum refining, most industry is privately owned. The portion of government-controlled industries is declining as the state has divested itself of substantial control over key holdings such as Olympic Airways and the telecommunications company, OTE.
There is substantial room for investment in tourism infrastructure. High technology equipment is a growth sector, as are the production of electrical machinery, office machinery and computers, defense products, building products and equipment, medical equipment, environmental engineering products and services, and certain agricultural products.
The Academy of Athens, founded in , oversees the activities of research institutes in astronomy and applied mathematics and in atmospheric physics and climatology.
Greece has five other scientific research institutes. Specialized scientific learned societies include the Association of Greek Chemists, founded in , and the Greek Mathematical Society, founded in , both headquartered in Athens.
Advanced scientific and technical training is provided at nine colleges and universities. The University of Athens has maintained a zoological museum since In the early s, the government established a Ministry of Research and Technology to foster scientific and technological development.
Foreign sources accounted for Industry and trade are centered on about 20 seaports throughout the country.
Athens, Piraeus, and Thessaloniki are the principal commercial cities; importers and exporters have offices in these cities and branches in other centers.
There are about , wholesale and retail trading establishments in the country. In general, small shops specialize in particular lines of merchandise, but there are a growing number of department stores.
Most people buy in the small shops and in the markets. Usual private sector business hours are from 8 or 9 am to 5 pm Monday through Friday.
Banking hours are from 8: Stores are open from 9 am to 6 pm, Monday through Saturday, but some have longer evening hours. Businesses are often closed for extended vacations throughout July and August, reopening in September after the annual trade fair.
Advertising is used widely in the towns and cities, and several advertising agencies are active in Athens and Thessaloniki. The most common media are television, newspapers, radio, films, billboards, neon signs, and window displays.
The principal annual trade fair is the International Fair of Thessaloniki, held in September. Garments and cotton have traditionally provided Greece with the most exports, followed by petroleum products; fruit, nuts, and vegetable oils; and tobacco.
Tobacco exports from Greece are substantial on the world commodities export market. In , the major exports were machinery The major imports in were machinery Trade is the second-largest services sub-sector, after property management.
The transportation and communications sector has grown in importance following the liberalization of the telecommunications market, while the financial services sector also increased in the mids.
Greece's leading markets in were Germany Leading suppliers included Germany Because it imports more than twice the value of its exports, Greece has registered chronic annual deficits in its balance of payments.
The major contributors to Greece's foreign exchange earnings are tourism, shipping services, and remittances from Greek workers abroad.
Greece's relatively small industrial base and lack of substantial investment since the mids limited the country's export potential.
Greece's productive base expanded in and , however, in part due to a thriving stock exchange , and low interest rates. A devaluation of the drachma in and Greece's inclusion in the euro zone in restored Greek competitiveness.
The current-account balance averaged The government-controlled Bank of Greece founded in is the central bank and the bank of issue; it also engages in other banking activities, although the European Central Bank is in charge of monetary policy.
There are 33 Greek commercial banks, which are dominated by two massive, state-controlled banking groups, the National Bank and the Commercial Bank.
Nineteen of the commercial banks are foreign, including three American banks. The two leading private banks are Alpha Credit and Ergo, which ranked third and fifth, respectively, in in the Greek banking industry in terms of assets.
In , as part of a general privatization program, the government began selling shares in the National Bank of Greece and Ionian Bank was sold outright and taken over by Alpha Credit.
The Currency Committee, composed of five cabinet ministers, controls the eight specialized credit institutions: The money supply in , as measured by M1, was The Athens Stock Exchange Chrimatisterion was founded by royal decree in In , significant reforms were instituted, including more stringent listing requirements, bringing about a rapid increase in the number of listed securities.
New legislation was introduced in to expand and liberalize its activities. The rule changes provided for the establishment of brokerage companies, thus breaking the traditional closed shop of individual brokers.
In there were 53 brokerage houses and just 6 private brokers. Computerized trading was implemented in and there has since been a rapid evolution of the market.
A satellite trading floor was established in Thessaloniki in In , Greek law was harmonized with the European Union financial services directive, and banks may now be directly represented on the floor of the exchange instead of having to establish subsidiary brokerage houses.
The late s witnessed a boom on the exchange. However, this expansion did not continue into the new millennium. Between and , the index lost In , the ASE rose Most of Greece's large insurance companies are partly or wholly owned by banks.
In addition, insurers are required to join several unions, trade groups, and insurance pools. Brokers in Greece also must be accepted by the Ministry of Trade.
In Greece, the social security scheme and third-party automobile liability insurance are compulsory. Insurance companies have begun to develop private pension schemes and corporate pension schemes.
However, most occupational pension funds remain under state control because they are part financed by state-enacted levies. Insurance companies have also been responsible for the recent explosion in unit trusts mutual funds , from two in to in December , when there were more than D2 trillion 7.
The state budget includes ordinary revenues and expenditures and a special investment budget administered by the Ministry of Coordination.
Public payrolls, liberal social security benefits, and loss-generating state owned companies have all contributed to a government deficit.
Recent austerity measures implemented to meet the criteria for European Monetary Union membership significantly lowered the budget shortfall. Public debt in amounted to A discount of 2.
A surcharge is applied to gross rental income, but the surcharge is not to exceed the primary corporate tax.
Dividends paid to the corporate or individual shareholder are not taxed. Various deductions or tax credits can be applied to taxable income for medical and hospitalization expenses; social security taxes; interest payments on home loans; and donations to charitable organizations, with special deductions for families whose income is derived primarily from their own work on agricultural enterprises.
Gift and inheritance taxes, property taxes on large estates having a certain value, real estate transfer taxes, and taxes on urban property and rural property are also levied.
Excise duties are charged on tobacco, alcohol, gasoline, and automobiles. The import tariff protects domestic products and provides a source of government revenue.
Many Greek industries are not yet large enough or sufficiently modern to compete in price with foreign products, either in markets abroad or in Greece itself.
As a full member of the European Union EU since , Greece eliminated its remaining tariffs and quotas on imports from EU nations by and aligned its own tariffs on imports from other countries with those of EU members.
Greek exports to EU countries are tariff-free. Imports from non-EU countries are subject to the EU's common customs tariff. Textiles, electronics, and some food products have higher rates.
Motor vehicles, yachts, and motorcycles are subject to special duties. The government encourages foreign capital investment and protects foreign investors against compulsory appropriation of their assets in Greece.
Incentives include reduced tax rates and increased depreciation rates. From — 05, FDI inflows averaged 0.
Greece's investment abroad is directed primarily to the Balkans. Until the mids, Greek governments devoted themselves principally to expanding agricultural and industrial production, controlling prices and inflation, improving state finances, developing natural resources, and creating basic industries.
In , the Karamanlis government undertook a series of austerity measures designed to curb inflation and redress the balance-of-payments deficit. A new energy program included plans for stepped-up exploitation of oil and lignite reserves, along with uranium exploration in northern Greece.
Increased efforts at import substitution were to be undertaken in all sectors. On 7 March , in an effort to strengthen confidence in the national currency, the government announced that the value of the drachma would no longer be quoted in terms of a fixed link with the US dollar, but would be based on daily averages taken from the currencies of Greece's main trade partners.
The Socialist government that took office in promised more equal distribution of income and wealth through "democratic planning" and measures to control inflation and increase productivity.
It imposed controls on prices and credit and began to restructure public corporations. But the government was cautious in introducing what it called "social control in certain key sectors" of the economy, and it ordered detailed studies to be made first.
Its development policies emphasized balanced regional growth and technological modernization, especially in agriculture.
Twenty-eight industrial companies were to be privatized. As a consequence, his government instituted an austerity program aimed to tackle chronically high inflation, unemployment, and a bloated public sector.
By — 99, these policies showed significant progress. Greece gained admission to the EMU in , and adopted the euro as its new currency in The Greek economy was growing at rates above European Union EU averages from — 05; however, unemployment and inflation rates were still higher than in most euro-area countries.
Greece benefits from EU aid, equal to about 3. Privatization of state-owned enterprises has moved at a relatively slow pace, especially in the telecommunications, banking, aerospace, and energy sectors.
In , preparations for the Olympics drove investment, but spending on the Olympic Games contributed to a general government deficit of 6.
With the aid of EU grants, Greece will need to update its infrastructure, especially in the northern regions and on the islands.
Improvements in road, rail, harbor, and airport links financed through the EU's Community Support Framework CSF programs have contributed to economic decentralization.
The Social Insurance Foundation, the national social security system, is supported by contributions from employees, employers and the government.
It provides for old age, disability and survivorship. Work injury and unemployment benefits are also provided. Sickness and maternity benefits have been in place since Current benefits include medical care, hospitalization, medicine, maternity care, dental coverage, appliances, and transportation.
Payments also include birth and funeral grants. Although the law mandates equal pay for equal work, according to statistics in women's pay amounted to Domestic violence and rape remains underreported, and the number of prosecutions and convictions is low.
Women are beginning to enter traditionally male-oriented careers such as law and medicine, but only make up Sexual harassment is specifically prohibited by law.
Occasional human rights abuses, involving residents, illegal aliens and persons in custody, have been reported. Government measures to improve prison conditions continue.
The constitution prohibits discrimination on the basis of nationality, race, language, religion, or political beliefs. In practice the government does not always protect these rights.
Since World War II, the government has broadened health services by building new hospitals and providing more clinics and medical personnel.
Total health care expenditure was estimated at 8. As of , there were an estimated physicians per , people. There are severe air quality problems in Athens.
Pulmonary tuberculosis, dysentery, and malaria, which were once endemic, have been controlled. The incidence of typhoid, which was formerly of epidemic proportions, dropped to only cases in following the application of US aid to improve sanitary conditions in more than villages.
In , the infant mortality rate was 5. The total fertility rate in 2. The birthrate was an estimated 9. The sharp birth rate decline since World War II has been attributed to the legalization of abortion.
In , life expectancy averaged As of , the overall mortality rate was estimated at 9. There were an estimated deaths from AIDS in Construction of new dwellings including repairs and extensions reached 88, units in and rose to , in Most new construction is in Athens or Thessaloniki, indicating the emphasis on urban development.
Considerable amounts of private investment have been spent on the construction of apartment houses in urban areas. In , the total number of dwelling units was 5,, Education is free and compulsory for nine years beginning at age six, and primary education lasts for six years.
Secondary education is comprised of two steps: At the upper secondary levels, students may choose to attend a three-year vocational school.
The central and local governments pay the cost of state schools, and private schools are state-regulated. The academic year runs from September to June.
Greek is the primary language of instruction. Nearly all students complete their primary education. The student-to-teacher ratio for primary school was at about In July , the Socialist government initiated a program to democratize the higher-education system; a law was approved that diminished the power of individual professors by establishing American-style departments with integrated faculties.
Junior faculty members and representatives of the student body were granted a role in academic decision-making.
The legislation also curbed university autonomy by establishing the National University Council to advise the government on higher-education planning, and the Academy of Letters and Sciences to set and implement university standards.
Greece has six major universities: There are several technological educational institutions, which offer nondegree programs of higher education. Private universities are constitutionally banned.
Both the National Library and the Library of Parliament 1. Public libraries are located mainly in provincial capitals, and there are regional libraries with book-mobile services for rural areas.
Besides the libraries attached to the universities and other educational institutions, there are several specialized research libraries located in Athens.
Outstanding special collections can be found at the Democritus Nuclear Research Center 91, volumes , the Center of Planning and Economic Research 30, volumes , the Athens Center of Ekistics 30, volumes , and the Gennadius Library 80, volumes , which houses a large collection on modern Greek history.
Being at the crossroads of different civilizations and an important European country, there are several libraries attached to various cultural and ethnic studies centers.
Most museums are devoted to antiquities and archaeology. One of the richest collections of Greek sculpture and antiquities is found at the National Archaeological Museum in Athens, which is also home to the Byzantine and Christian Museum, Benaki Museum, and Kanellopoulos Museum.
The most impressive archaeological remains, of course, are the great temples and palaces at Athens particularly the Parthenon and the Stoa of Attalos , Corinth, Salonika, Delphi , Olympia , Mycenae, the island of Delos, and Knossos, on Crete.
There are also notable museums dedicated to the work of other cultures, including the Byzantine Museum and the Jewish Museum, both in Athens.
The Greek Telecommunications Authority operates domestic telegraph and telephone communications. In , there were an estimated mainline telephones for every 1, people; about 1, people were on a waiting list for telephone service installation.
The same year, there were approximately mobile phones in use for every 1, people. Radio Athens broadcasts are carried by provincial relay stations located in various parts of the country; other stations are operated by the Greek armed forces and by the Hellenic National Radio and Television Institute.
There are numerous independent radio and television stations. In , there were an estimated radios and television sets for every 1, people.
The same year, there were There were secure Internet servers in the country in In , there were over daily papers throughout the country.
The largest Athens dailies with estimated circulation rates are To Vima , , Eleftheros Typos , , Ta Nea , , Ethnos 84, , Apogevmatini 72, , and Avriani 51, The constitution provides for freedom of speech and press, and with a few exceptions the government is said to respect these rights.
On matters involving the politically sensitive subject of the recognition of certain ethnic minorities, it is reported that the government is restrictive.
The constitution also allows for seizure of publications that insult the president, offend religious beliefs, contain obscene articles, advocate violent overthrow of the political system, or disclose military and defense information.
However, such action is very rare. Most of the larger cities and towns have associations of commerce, industry, handicrafts, and finance.
The Federation of Greek Industries draws together many of these business and manufacturing organizations.
The Academy of Athens serves to promote public interest in science and works to improve availability and effectiveness in science education programs.
Artists, writers, musicians, educators, and journalists are organized into professional associations.
Scholarly societies include those devoted to archaeology, anthropology, geography, history, political science , and sociology.
Several professional associations also promote research and education in their field. There are several sports organization in Greece, including the historical societies of the Hellenic Federation of Ancient Olympic Games and the International Society of Olympic Historians.
The World Chess Federation is based in Athens. Principal tourist sites, in addition to the world-famous Parthenon and Acropolis in Athens, include Mt.
Olympus the home of the gods in ancient mythology , the site of the ancient oracle at Delphi, the Agora at Corinth, the natural spring at the rock of the Acropolis, and the Minoan ruins on Crete.
Popular sports include swimming at the many beaches, sailing, water-skiing, fishing, golf, and mountain climbing. The Greek government encourages tourists and facilitates their entry and accommodation.
A passport is needed for admission; residents of the United States, Australia, Canada , and 37 other countries do not require a visa for a stay of up to 90 days.
About 14,, tourists visited Greece in There were , hotel rooms in with , beds. The average length of stay that same year was seven nights.
The origins of Western literature and of the main branches of Western learning may be traced to the era of Greek greatness that began before bc with the epics of Homer possibly born in Asia Minor , the Iliad and the Odyssey.
The poets Alcaeus ? The fables of the slave Aesop b. Three of the world's greatest dramatists were Aeschylus — bc , author of the Oresteia trilogy; Sophocles ?
Three great historians were Herodotus b. Outstanding literary figures of the Hellenistic period were Menander — ?
Noteworthy in the Roman period were Strabo b. The leading philosophers of the period preceding Greece's golden age were Thales b. His greatest pupil, Plato ?
Plato's pupil Aristotle — bc established the rules of deductive reasoning but also used observation and inductive reasoning, applying himself to the systematic study of almost every form of human endeavor.
Outstanding in the Hellenistic period were Epicurus ? The oath of Hippocrates ? The sculptor Phidias ? Another renowned sculptor was Praxiteles ? The legal reforms of Solon ?
The Athenian general Miltiades ? With the decline of Athens, first Sparta and then Thebes, under the great military tactician Epaminondas ?
It was against Philip that Demosthenes — bc , the greatest Greek orator, directed his diatribes, the Philippics.
The most renowned Greek painter during the Renaissance was El Greco Domenikos Theotokopoulos, — , born in Crete, whose major works, painted in Spain, have influenced many 20th-century artists.
An outstanding modern literary figure is Nikos Kazantzakis — , a novelist and poet who composed a vast sequel to Homer's Odyssey.
Leading modern poets are Kostes Palamas — , Georgios Drosines — , and Constantine Cavafy — , as well as George Seferis Seferiades, — 72 , and Odysseus Elytis Alepoudhelis, — 96 , winners of the Nobel Prize for literature in and , respectively.
The work of social theorist Cornelius Castoriadis — 97 is known for its multidisciplinary breadth. Musicians of stature are the composers Nikos Skalkottas — 49 , Iannis Xenakis b.
Romania, — , and Mikis Theodorakis b. United States, — Actresses of note are Katina Paxinou — 73 ; Melina Mercouri — 94 , who was appointed minister of culture and science in the Socialist cabinet in ; and Irene Papas Lelekou, b.
Outstanding Greek public figures in the 20th century include Cretan-born Eleutherios Venizelos — , prominent statesman of the interwar period; Ioannis Metaxas — , dictator from until his death; Constantine Karamanlis — 98 , prime minister — 63, — 80 and president — 85 of Greece; George Papandreou — , head of the Center Union Party and prime minister — 65 ; and his son Andreas Papandreou — 96 , the PASOK leader who became prime minister in Ancient Israel and Ancient Greece: Religion, Politics, and Culture.
State University of New York Press, The Parthenon and Its Sculptures. Cambridge University Press, An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture.
Notes from the Balkans: Princeton University Press, Women Poets in Ancient Greece and Rome. University of Oklahoma Press, The Empty Cradle of Democracy: Sex, Abortion, and Nationalism in Modern Greece.
Duke University Press, Oxford University Press, New Haven , Conn.: Yale University Press, A Civilization on the Periphery.
History, Culture, and Society. Upper Saddle River, N. Pearson Prentice Hall, Illustrated Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece. Los Angeles , Calif.: Paul Getty Museum, Encyclopedia of Greece and the Hellenic Tradition.
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Supplemental material has been added to increase coverage of minor cities, facts have been updated, and some material has been condensed.
Readers are encouraged to visit the Department of State's web site at http: Greek legend tells that Titans battling Olympian gods once hurled giant rocks at Zeus in an attempt to knock him out of the sky.
Their missiles piled up to become the mountains which blanket Greece, and stray boulders splashed into the sea to form the islands that serve as stepping stones across the Aegean.
In the past 30 years, Greece has changed from an agrarian to a semi industrial economy, but on the few fertile plains and many rocky slopes of this tip of the Balkan Peninsula , farmers herd sheep or tend olive groves, wheat fields, and vineyards, as did their ancestors for a thousand years.
Each province preserves its traditional costume, brightening the festivals held in the small, square dominated villages. Throughout the storied isles of Greece-some lie in the Aegean and Ionian Seas and account for a fifth of the nation's area-the white of house and church glints against the blue of sky, and men go down to the sea for sponges and fish.
This seafaring tradition gives Greece the world's largest merchant tonnage-more than half of it registered under foreign flags for tax reasons. During the Bronze Age BC a maritime civilization flourished.
By BC Greece was undergoing a cultural and military revival, with the evolution of city-states, the most powerful of which were Athens and Sparta.
This period was followed by an era of great prosperity known as the classical or Golden Age. During this time, a tradition of democracy was ushered in.
The classical age came to an end with the Peloponnesian Wars AD in which the militaristic Spartans defeated the Athenians.
Greece became a part of the Byzantine Empire in AD. By the 12th century, the Crusades were in full flight and Byzantine power was much reduced by invasions.
For 25 centuries a crossroads between Europe and Asia to both merchant and conqueror, Greece did not achieve political unity until rebellion brought independence after years of Turkish rule in The Acropolis in Athens stands as an enduring monument to the "glory that was Greece," fountainhead of Western culture and democracy.
Below its marble ruins and glass-faced offices serve shipping, tourism, and flourishing light industries in a developing nation that still must import much of its food, machinery, and raw materials.
The arts have been integral to Greek life since ancient times. In summer, Greek dramas are staged in the ancient theaters where they were originally performed.
Greek literature's ancient heritage spans poetry, drama, philosophical and historical treatises, and travel-ogues. Western civilization's mania for logic and "ideas" can be traced directly back to ancient Greek philosophers such as Socrates , Plato , and Aristotle , and the West's sciences, arts, and politics are also deeply indebted to classical Greece.
The city proper is built around the historic Acropolis and picturesque Lycabettus Hill. The Attica Plain is the ancient division which outlines the territory of Athens; it is agriculturally rich, but surrounded by semiarid hills and mountains.
Athens is the commercial, cultural, and political center of Greece. Like many larger U. Some northern suburbs are Psychico, Filothei, Kifissia, and Ekali.
Old phaleron, Kalamaki, Glyfada, and Voula border the sea. The architecture of Athens varies from the antiquity of the Acropolis to the contemporary structures of the modern suburbs.
The city is burgeoning with construction, especially of apartment and office buildings in the downtown area. Like Boston, it is a "mother city," the central point of a group of suburban townships with separate entities.
Ancient Athens began as a city-state in the seventh century B. It reached the height of its splendor two centuries later, during the time of its great statesman, Pericles , and of its philosophers and dramatists, Socrates, Anaxagoras, Sophocles , Euripides , and Aristophanes.
During these years, the magnificent white marble Parthenon was built on the Acropolis. The Spartans captured Athens in B. Athens eventually came under Macedonian and Roman rule, then was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in , and remained under Turkish control until It became the capital of modern Greece in On the local market, fresh meat, both local and imported, is cut in the European manner and is expensive; good pork and lamb are available.
Local beef is not aged and lacks the tenderness of American beef. Fresh chickens, eggs, and cheese are good buys. Many Greeks shop daily, so the local shopping centers are an important part of every neighborhood.
Each has its own grocer, butcher, florist, greengrocer, pharmacy, and a fish merchant. Fresh produce, fruits, plants, eggs, and sometimes fish can also be purchased at the colorful weekly neighborhood farmers' markets.
Fish is available but expensive. The huge central market daily sells fresh meats, game, chicken, seafood, spices, and a surprising variety of other commodities.
A recent phenomenon is the neighborhood Greek equivalent to the U. Many of these establishments cater to the demands of clientele with international tastes, so they stock delicacies from around the world in addition to national products.
Although some specialty items are expensive, there are also bargains. In any case, there is almost nothing that cannot be found in the Greek food market.
Greek bakeries offer a tasty variety of home-style bread from wheat to French and Arabic all made without preservatives. Sweet shops specialize in a variety of Greek pastries and European-style cakes and chocolates.
Health food stores are a new fad and located in many areas. Greek wines are plentiful, varied and inexpensive, and some of the finer ones compete well internationally.
Wardrobes for Greece should include hot and cold weather clothing similar to that worn in Washington, D. Warm winter clothes and sweaters are necessary because apartments, houses, and some offices are not adequately heated.
Summer clothing should be lightweight and include many washable items. Shoes wear out quickly because of dust, dirt, and uneven pavements.
Fashionable shoes in average sizes and widths are available and of good quality but are expensive. People with large, narrow, or wide feet or who are more comfortable in shoes with a special American brand should bring a good supply with them or order through mail-order companies.
Medium-to-heavyweight wool suits are most comfortable during late fall and winter. For outdoors, supplement these with a sweater or a medium weight coat.
A lightweight raincoat is also useful. One or two dark conservative suits are a must. Dark suits are worn year round for official functions, receptions, and informal dinners.
In spring, summer, and early fall, lightweight suits of Orlon, Dacron, and tropical-worsted gabardine are ideal. English and good Greek woolens are available locally but are expensive.
Since the weather is pleasant most of the year, bring informal sportswear sport shirts, slacks, or jeans, loafers, etc. Order shirts, ties, underwear, pajamas, socks, etc.
Lightweight cotton, cotton-linen blends, silk, or other natural fibers in simple styles are preferred during the summer season.
Slacks are popular casual attire. Dark cottons, shantungs, silks, and polyesters are worn during spring and fall. Suits and jacket dresses give versatility to clothes, particularly for changes of temperature and occasion.
Wool dresses, suits, and sweaters are worn from October through April. Leather skirts, jackets, and coats are popular. Any cloth coat is appropriate in winter, as are fur coats.
One or two raincoats are desirable. European women dress fashionably, particularly for social occasions. Black is always in style for dressy occasions.
Simple dresses are suitable for cocktail parties. Short as well as long dresses are worn for formal occasions. Stoles or evening sweaters are recommended for evening garden parties in summer.
Ready-to-wear clothes of all kinds are a standard item in Greece. Prices and quality vary. Sales held twice yearly August and February offer good buys.
Local shops carry good purses, belts, buttons, and jewelry. Imported or handmade items are expensive. Greek markets offer a variety of yard goods.
Imported silks, woolens, and cottons are available, but the best quality fabrics are expensive. Some local silks are attractive; Greek cottons, though less expensive, are seldom colorfast or pre-shrunk and never drip dry.
Notions of European origin are plentiful. Dressmaking services range from local seamstresses to expensive couturiers. Local seamstresses are expensive.
Local silver jewelry is attractive and reasonable. Yarns for knitting are available. Fur jackets, stoles, and coat, are available locally.
Prices vary according to styles, kind of fur, and whether the skins are pieced or whole. Stone martens are native to Greece. Sports clothes are practical.
Purchase sports and walking shoes in the U. Greek and American women wear blouses or sweaters and skirts year round.
These are available locally. Bring several swimsuits, since saltwater and bright sun wear them out rapidly. Attractive European-style swimsuits are available locally but are expensive.
Ready-made clothing for children is available locally, but good quality apparel is expensive. Most families obtain children's clothing through catalog companies.
As in the U. Sweaters are necessary, especially during colder months when building heat is inadequate. Athens has several main shopping areas in the city and the suburbs, where you can find a good variety of locally made and imported goods.
Stores of one specialty cluster together-furniture stores in one section and light fixtures in another. Large supermarkets and economy merchandise chains throughout the city carry a wide variety of cleaning and cosmetic products, as well as everyday household items.
Each neighborhood has its own dry-cleaner, shoe repair shop, hair-dresser, and men's hair stylist. A contracting dry-cleaning service is available through the employee's association.
Hair stylists and beauty shops are expensive compared to U. Friends, neighbors, and associates are helpful on where to find auto mechanics, plumbers, electricians, or carpenters.
These workers usually speak English, French, or German, in addition to Greek. By government decree and custom, in addition to regular compensation, servants receive bonuses at Christmas a month's salary ; Easter half a month's salary ; and vacation time days' wages.
Live-in servants also receive food, clothing, and medical care. The servant's medical care is provided under IKA Greek social security.
A legislative decree provides for obligatory insurance enrollment with IKA for all full-time, live-in domestic employees as follows: General house workers, chambermaids, and laundresses are paid whether living in or out.
Some take their meals in the household and other receive food allowance. Mandatory insurance payments provide old-age pension and medical care.
Those who employ day workers are not obliged to pay this insurance fee; the workers are responsible for their own coverage.
In addition to the Greek Orthodox church, several other faiths are represented in Athens. Catholic Mass in English can be heard at St.
Paul 's in Kifissia. The central Cathedral has services in Greek, with readings and announcements occasionally in English.
Beth Shalom Synagogue is located in Athens, and a mosque occupies the top floor of the Caravel Hotel. Sunday school and CCD classes are available through several churches.
The governing body is an eight-member Board of Education elected by the Parents Association. ACS provides an American educational program and offers the international baccalaureate program to interested students.
ACS has two limited special education resource centers for learning disabilities. Admission to these centers is limited and is based on evaluation of records.
ACS has a current enrollment of The school complex is located in Halandri, 7 miles from downtown Athens. It consists of three schools: Bus service is available.
Curriculum includes advanced placement and college preparatory courses, as well as the international baccalaureate program, business education, industrial and fine arts, home economics , physical education, extensive foreign language program, and work-study program.
The international address is: Tasis Hellenic International School tel. It prides itself on having a caring, student-centered community. Classes are small; the average class has 15 students.
The academic year extends from September to mid-June. The school year is divided into 2 semesters, with a 3-week Christmas vacation and a 2-week spring break.
Grades and teacher comments are sent to parents four times yearly. Bus transportation is provided from all major residential areas in and around Athens.
Tasis also has an elementary school pre-K to grade 5 with a curriculum that is designed to meet the special needs of the young child.
The elementary school is located 12 minutes from the middle and high school campus. The mailing address is: Catherine's British School tel. Some families are permanent residents of Athens while others are more internationally mobile.
The curriculum is closely modeled on the British National Curriculum but has certain adaptations and additions that take into account the school's unique circumstances.
Every effort is made to keep class size small. The school occupies a site in Lykovrissi, bordering the residential suburb of Kifissia, and is within easy access of other northern suburbs of Athens.
All children are required to wear a school uniform, which is designed so that most items are relatively easy to obtain. The school's facilities in terms of playground space, campus environment, and outdoor swimming pool are excellent.
Mailing address for overseas mail is: Box , Nea Erithrea, Greece Campion is registered in Massachusetts and has been a member of the Governing Bodies Association in the U.
Campion operates two elementary schools, one in the northern suburb of Halandri and the other in the coastal suburb of Glyfada.
The senior school is situated in Ekali, 1. One-third of the student body is British; the remainder represent 50 other countries. Computer and technical studies are available, and a particularly wide range of foreign languages is taught.
Current enrollment is pupils from 18 countries between the ages of 3 and 18 years. The school is located in the Hellenikon area of Athens.
Bus transportation is available. Foreign Language Schools Japanese School tel. Instruction is in Japanese. Elementary, high school, and lycee.
Instruction is in Italian.It consists of three schools: Athens and the suburbs have many movie theaters. Gourmet Detective TV Movie Many tennis clubs exist, from elite to affordable. ACS has two limited special greenhouse casino resource centers for learning disabilities. Specialized scientific learned societies include the Association of Greek Chemists, founded inand the Greek Mathematical Society, founded inboth headquartered in Athens. Darcy Martin Lawrence: Beste Spielothek in Kahlscheuer finden work of social theorist Cornelius Samurai Master Slots Free Play & Real Money Casinos — 97 is known for its multidisciplinary breadth. The servant's medical care is provided under IKA Greek social security. A Haunted House 2 Bleed for this